1a. BLOATING (‘getting fat’, the competition word) A most seasonal word for competitors to clue. Care must be taken in defining this word, and in not confusing ‘getting fat’ with ‘making oneself fat’.
23a. RAMIWINGLLIES (wing in Ramillies). ‘Wing’, a variant of win3 is an obsolete slang term for penny. The hat is named after Marlborough’s victory in The War of the Spanish Succession.
31a. SOCENTLA (cent in sola).
39a. TREDILE (red in tile). ‘Red’ is an alternative and shortened term for ‘red cent’, ‘tile’ a slang word meaning ‘hat’.
1d. BCOPPERASHER (copper in basher). ‘Basher’ is a slang term for a straw hat.
4d. TERPAI (p in terai) ‘Terai’ (q.v.) is the name of what seems to have been a bush hat used during the Raj, and named after the province in which it was first used.
6d. GREYLAG (Our token goose, the second real word) A common wild species from which most European domestic geese are believed to be descended.
13d. TAMDOSHANTER (d in Tam o’ Shanter)
17d. TSTIVEROPI (stiver in topi)
1. Open country, a furlong within it having abundant trees. LEAFY (A + f in ley (= lea1)) A charming beginning, the whole evoking the delight of being in leafy country. Beware, barbed-wire ahead!
11. The old summary judgement by AZ is how you’ll see each ——? COMPEND (i.e. ‘comp. end’) The checking letters might lead some solvers to guess at ‘comment’, as Azed’s remarks in the famous slips are separately known. The solution is listed as an old variant of ‘compendium’.
12. US brook, once pure and steep in country parts. RUNNET (Run + net2) The Doctor was up all night with the runs. Deep in Chambers’ list of meanings of ‘run’ as noun is ‘a small stream (US)’. ‘Net2’ has ‘pure (obs.)’ among its meanings. The solution is listed as a dialect variant of ‘rennet1’, ‘any means of curdling milk’. ‘Steep2’ has amongst its noun definitions ‘rennet’ (sic). Many guessers may have been tempted by ‘runnel’, ‘a little brook’, a mistake that might hinder, even scupper, the discovery of the unclued solutions.
14. Time of life and complexion alternating as indicated. ARGUED (Age, rud - letters alternating) A simple clue, but Doctor Watson wonders what the clue’s surface is supposed to mean, that is, why ‘alternating’? ‘Declining’ he understands well enough.
21. Originally lean river pike showing result of 1 Across? ENLARGED (Anag. (lean) + R + ged) This is an important clue in the puzzle as whole, a big hint that 1 Across is one of the two ‘real’ unclued answers, and that it may mean ‘enlargement’. The use of ‘originally’ to indicate an anagram may trouble some solvers, but it has been defended by Azed. He uses it occasionally.
33. Each one swirls, giving yacht no hope? TYPHOON (Comp. anag. & lit.) The direct reference to the solution within the clue is given by ‘one’, thus ‘each typhoon’ is an anagram of ‘yacht no hope’. ‘Swirls’ indicates the anagram. A brilliant &lit clue.
38. Jock’s croaking? Give the old man a grave. ROOPIT (Roo + pit) Listed as one of two adjectives derived from ‘roop1’, itself a variant of ‘roup2’ which yields a similar adjective (‘roupit’), our solution is a Scots word meaning ‘hoarse’. ‘Pit’ is readily found to be used to mean a grave, but establishing a connection between ‘roo’ and ‘old man’ is more arduous. Perhaps the first thought - that ‘roo’ might have been used in the past to mean ‘man’ - was just too improbable. Finding ‘old man’ definitions listed under ‘old’ reveals one being ‘an adult male kangaroo’. Azed seems to have been so taken with this Australian term as a synonym for ‘roo’ that he subsequently used it again in puzzle 2013 at 8 down.
41. You may see this prompter suit stumbling understudies. SUDDENER (Comp. anag. (‘understudies’ less ‘suit’)) The solution is presumably the comparative of ‘sudden’ . The phrase ‘You may see’ serves both to indicate the composite nature of the anagram and to avoid the use of ‘suits’ .
2. Like famous herd, secure in bit of wood? LOWING (win in log - Ref . Thomas Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard) The reference to ‘famous herd’ is highly unlikely to indicate any real cattle. Some herd from literature is needed. ‘The lowing herd’ from Gray’s poem fits the bill.
7. Wig? Prohibition restricts this loosely for bald ‘un. LUD (anag. of (ba)ld ‘u(n)) Wig may mean ‘a judge’ or m’ lud as he is addressed in court. A very witty and inventive clue. Some solvers may demur.
18. Fishing boat was still upside-down with little in hold. YAWL (w in lay2(rev.)) This meaning of ‘lay’, (‘was still’), the past tense of lie2, is beautifully disguised in the clue’s surface, where ‘still’, here meaning ‘yet’, is merely an adverb qualifying ‘was upside-down’. The abbreviation of ‘with’ is also most subtly indicated.
20. Two-thirds of cavity MO treated - purulent one? VOMICA (anag. of cavi(ty), MO) A vomica is ‘a cavity in the lung containing pus’. Conveniently, purulent (q.v.) means just about any condition involving pus, so ‘purulent one’, referring to the treated cavity, defines. The subsidiary brilliantly involves the true definition.
26. Marriage portion includes love, care of lassie’s modern kind of lover. DOOCOT (0 + c/o in dot2) The definition is given by ‘lassie’s modern kind of lover’, with ‘lassie’ serving to indicate a Scots word and also to disguise the true meaning of ‘lover’. Lover2 is listed as ‘an obsolete form of louvre or louver, so a modern lover indicates a louvre directly. One definition of louvre is ‘a dovecote (obs)’. Listed under ‘doo’, a Scots term for ‘dove’, is found ‘doocot’ or ‘dooket’, hence our solution.
34. Go off virtue, among the characteristics of deity. ODIN ((Go)od + in) At first sight this clue might seem intractably complex, but when one has found ‘among the characteristics of’ listed as a definition of ‘in’ its simplicity is apparent.
36. Exuberant cry featuring centrally in the Moor? HOO (shoot, presumably) ..if so, a reference to a grouse moor, i.e a shoot, a tract of land given over to the raising of game birds. The surface reading alludes, of course, to Othello, in which play this Shakespearean cry might be heard. Doctor Watson is confident that the word ‘hoo’ does not appear in the text, however.
For the record, Azed has confirmed that the correct parsing is (t)h(e) (M)oo(r), which Doctor Watson rejected as imprecisely indicated.
Across: 15. TALA (hidden) 16. PINT-POT (t,p in Pinot) 18. YEALM (anag.) 22. EGOTISE (e.g. + is in (h)ote(l)) 27. ABSINTH (sin in anag.) 32. HOARD (2 defs) 35. ECHO (E + Ch + o) 37. SNEAPS (Sn + anag.) 40. STOIT (to in sit). Down: 3. OMEN ((w)omen) 5. INGOES (anag. in I.’s) 8. ENTEROLITH (anag.) 9. ANA (A + Na) 10. FELLER (2 defs) 19. A-GOING (in in agog) 24. WIND (3 meanings) 25. INTENTS (in + tents) 28 BAYARD2 (i.e. "bay ‘ard") 29. SUPPED (up in sped) 30. TOOTLE (to + Otle(y)) 37. SIT (I in st.).